26 Oct 2016


Diabetes, The Silent Killer

                              Obesity And Diabetes

The incidence
One of the leading causes of morbidity in the world , diabetes stands out as one of the most dreaded disease in the world today. The incidence is increasing at a jet fast rate. This justifies the need for immediate intervention.

Types of diabetes
         Diabetes can broadly be of two types, insulin dependent and insulin independent. To understand what this means, one should be thorough about his knowledge about insulin. Insulin is a hormone, secreted by the pancreas in the body. It enters the small intestine and then, the circulation via which it reaches the various tissues. At  the cellular level, it promotes glucose utilisation by the cells thus decreasing blood sugar. Failure of this, results in diabetes i.e. increased blood sugar

       Diagnosis of diabetes is made by an estimate of blood glucose. A fasting blood glucose of more than 126mmol/dl and a post prandial, 2 hour blood glucose of more than 200 mmol/dl is diagnostic of Diabetes Mellitus. 

The Pathology
Type 1 diabetes, corresponds with decreased pancreatic secretion of insulin. Consequently, blood insulin level falls and the sugar level rises. Type 2 diabetes is associated with normal levels of insulin. But the cells fail to respond to the same and thus, result in increased blood sugar. This is the scenario seen in most of the OBESE patients.
   Obesity is an established risk factor for diabetes today. Statistical confirmation drops down the Intel of occurrence of diabetes in about 71% of obese people,down the road. The reason for this strong association is multi factorial. The most important being, decreased cellular ability to utilise glucose. The insulin, when rejected by the cell, is supplied in excess by the body's counter regulatory physiology. Such high amounts on insulin may make the cell responsive to the same, still doesn't manage to put the insulin to good use. This can be compared to a lazy employer working in an ineffective factory. Let's say the factory's commercial value is very low, and thus it fails to produce and appoint effective workers. This is seen as an opportunity by the rather non effective applicants coming in excess. The number is so huge, the factory accepts this magnitude of employees. But still, the quality of the employees is so poor that the factory still fails to work well. Kind of a similar analogy here too. Excess insulin may be accepted by non complaint cells by the body, but still the insulin fails to serve it's role, that is glucose uptake in the cell.
   That's just one of the reasons. Obesity results in increase in peripheral fat. Since the body has so much of fat within It now, it prefers utilising this fat as a source of energy instead of the conventional glucose. This results in decreases glucose uptake and utilisation , thus effectively increasing the circulating glucose.

Solving the problem


       The western influence on the nation is directing the nation's population, especially the youth towards the western, rather unhealthy lifestyles, predisposing one to obesity which in turn renders one, susceptible to diabetes. Stopping the spread of  this disaster at source, will be  the most effective choice of cure.